Madurai Details

Origin of the name:

The city has been variously referred to as "Madurai", "Koodal" (or Koodal Nagar) and "Thirvalavai" (or Alavai). Many theories have been suggested for the name Madurai. Prominent among them is the one which traces the name to the Sanskrit word Mathura (lit. Sweetness). Another popular theory is that the name is the derivation of the word Marutham - which refers to both a type of trees that grew in the banks of river Vaigai and a type of landscape in the Sangam age. According to legend, the original city of Madurai, called Then Madurai (lit. Madurai of South) was destroyed by a tsunami in ancient Kumari Kandam. Then the city was moved inland to the current day Madurai. Apart from the current city, there is a town in the neighbouring Dindigul district called Vada Madurai (North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district called Manamadurai. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 17th Century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam (Thiruvalavai Maanmiyam) written by the poet Paranjothi Munivar.

Population: An inhabitant of Madurai is called as Maduraiite. As Per the 2001 census, the city corporation had a population of 928,869.

Climate: The climate is dry and hot, with Northeast monsoon rains during October-December. Temperatures during summer reach a maximum of 40 and a minimum of 26.3 °C, though temperatures over 43 °C are not uncommon. Winter temperatures range between 29.6 and 18 °C. The average annual rainfall is about 85 cm.

 Economy:

 Madurai district houses reputed organizations in the private sector which are engaged in the production of variety of goods such as tyres, industrial rubber products, machinery, textiles, conveyor belts, chemicals etc. Madurai is the home to TVS group

Agriculture:

Education:

Madurai has a literacy rate and human development index above the state average. Madurai Kamaraj University is situated in Madurai. It pioneered the concept of Distance education throughout India. The University was accorded the status of "University with Potential for Excellence”The city has a Medical College, Madurai Medical College (established in the year 1954), a Government Homoeopathic Medical college & hospital, an Agricultural College and Research Institute, a Law College, and many Engineering and Arts & Science Colleges. Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai (established in the year 1957) is one of the premier institutions in Tamil Nadu. Madurai has many reputed Schools, Polytechnics and Industrial training institutes (ITIs) as well. Madura College is 120 years old and was started as a Zilla school in 1856.  The American College in Madurai is one of the oldest colleges in India. It was founded in 1881 by American Christian missionaries. Lady Doak College, the first Women's College in Madurai was founded in 1948 by an American missionary. Thiagarajar college of Arts and Science (founded in 1949) is also another older institution. Thiagarajar School of Management (well-known as TSM in South India, founded in 1962) is a premier institute for Management Studies. Other notable colleges include K.L.N College of Engineering, Raja College of Engineering & Technology, Sethu Engineering College, Vickram College of Engineering, SACS M.A.V.M.M Engineering College, Velammal College of Engineering and Technology and P.T.R College of Engineering and Technology. M.S.S.Wakf Board college, K.K.Nagar and S.V.N College Nagamalai are among the reputed institutions in Madurai since 1965. There are significant number of Hotel Management & Catering institutes  in the city. The Madura College (Autonomous) is one of the ancient colleges in Madurai.
The Aravind Eye Research Institute has started Ph.D programme in the areas of Genetics, immunology, ophthalmology, biomedical sciences, Humanities and social sciences as well as bio-technology in affiliation with universities like Madurai Kamaraj university,Dr. MGR Medical University and Indian Institute of Technology Madras. It has research collaborators from London and USA. In recent years, the city is a witness to campus interviews by leading industry organisations and successful placement programmes organised by the University. Industry estimates put that about 15 to 20 per cent of manpower working in IT industries in metros are from Madurai and surrounding districts. Other reputed educational institutions are Ma Foi and VETA.

A new but upcoming centre of innovative education is in Pulloothu. It is Tata-Dhan Academyhaving a two year unique program in Development Management. It is widely acclaimed as a pioneer institute in this field and is supported by Dhan foundation and Sir Ratan Tata Trust.

 

Industries:

Automobile

All automobile majors, including General Motors, Ford, Toyota and Honda, are regular buyers of automobile components produced in the city.[46] The state government is planning to develop industrial estate in Madurai which is to come up on 2,000 acres and would focus on the manufacturing industry, especially on automobile component manufacturers.[47]

 

 

Rubber

Because of city's proximity to rubber producing centers, it has had rubber as a traditional industry. Besides gloves, sports goods, mats and other utility products, Madurai contributes in large to the production of automobile rubber components. Rubber goods worth about Rs. 2,000 crore are produced here annually[citation needed]. TVS Srichakra (tyre manufacturing), Sundaram Industries Limited (Rubber Division, Coach division) , Fenner India Limited and Lanxess India Private Limited are some of the rubber based industries in the city. The rubber industry, industrialists feel, has a rich potential to transform Madurai economy. The anticipated growth in this industry, triggered by a boom in automobile sector, will have a cascading effect on other wings of the local economy. Despite being an industry with potential to cause pollution, the manufacturers are taking “special care” to adopt environment-friendly processes. The city is planned to have a rubber cluster soon. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is signed between Madurai District Tiny and Small Scale Industries’ Association (MADITSSIA) and Rubber Park (Madurai) Limited.[48] Some of the on-going industrial projects are BHEL ancillary units[49] and Caparo Engineering India Pvt Ltd.[50]

IT and ITES

Main article: Software companies in Madurai

Honeywell office at Thirupparankundram

Over the recent years the IT industry has made a mark in the economy of Madurai. Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorized several companies in Madurai to receive benefits under its national information technology development program. City houses MNCs like Honeywell Technologies India and other notable companies like Alfa web solutions and AJ Square consultancy. A detailed list of IT and ITES service providers from madurai can be found at List of Software companies in Madurai. Due to work culture, low attrition rates and the presence of educational institutions, the city attracts IT majors like HCL, Satyam, Oracle[51] and Sutherland Global Services.[52][53] Tamil Nadu government has proposed two IT- Special Economic Zone (SEZ)s in Madurai and they have been fully occupied by various IT companies.[54] The work on provision of infrastructure is in progress in Information Technology parks.[55] Considering the high growth rate of Quality Human resource in and around madurai India's No.2 IT major Infosys is eyeing Madurai for its expansion and to open its development centre.[56] The list of various software companies operating from and contributing to the revenue of Madurai can be viewed in List of Software companies in Madurai.

Textile

Some of the existing textile/chemical industries are Thiagarajar Mills (P) Limited (one of the largest manufacturer and exporter of 100% Indian Cotton Yarn), Kasim Textile Mills, Sundaram Textiles Limited, Madura Coats Pvt. Ltd, Paramount Mills (P) Ltd, Weaves India (P) Ltd, First Garment Manufacturing Company (India) Pvt Ltd, Vaigai Group (chemicals, edible oils, textiles, construction), Alaya Dhoties, Sarathi Dhoties and SLM International, Saraswathi Handloom Textiles (P) Ltd and T.S.Madhavan & son for cotton sarees a leading reliable quality textile product manufactures for the past 70 years in madurai.

Granite

There are also few Granite industries like PRP Exports (one of India's largest granite processors and exporters) Madurai Arkay Rock, P.R.Granites, Duniterocks private limited (Granite gangsaw slabs) and Arkay Glenrock. There is a proposal to set up a granite industry near Melur, and a polishing factory in Madurai.

Electronics

TVS Interconnect Systems Ltd is a manufacturer of high end Electronic components like electronic connectors, RF (Radio frequency) connectors, cable assemblies, Fiber optic products Elevator Safety Products & other accessories for telecommunication, consumer electronics and automobile. Town hall road madurai acts as a one stop solution for all Electronic goods in madurai.

Retail

A Retail showroom in Madurai

Retail industry plays a major role in the revenue of the city. This is evident from existing super markets like Reliance Fresh, Reliance Super, Spencer's Daily and on-going malls construction like Milan'em mall,[57] Vishal Mall, Big Bazaar and Madurai City Center.

There are cinema halls or multiplexes for all classes of people. Aparna Towers and Kaziyar Complex in S.S.Colony form the major landmarks for the retail business outlets in Madurai city. Meenakshi bazaar, Pondi Bazaar, Town-Hall road, Golcha Complex constitute the retail shops fro foreign goods.

There are retail shopping places like Naidu Hall (Naihaa), Pothys, Lalitha Jewellery & Textiles, Outfit, Mega Mart, A.K. Ahmad Co., British bakery, Café Coffee day, Pandi Bazzar, Meenakshi bazaar, etc. In line with the ancient architecture of the city, the business set up in the city is confined to a particular industry in a street and can find series of shops selling the similar products. East Gate is crowded with hundreds of household utensils shops. East Masi Street is fully stuffed with thousands of groceries shops, West Masi Street with Electrical and Plumbing goods, Garments and Textiles in South Masi Street, Goods Transports and Fruit Godowns in North Masi Street, Electronic goods in Town Hall Road, Automobile spare parts in North Veli street and Mobile show rooms in Krishna Rayar tank street, Pharmas in Nayakkar new steet, Sculptures at Pasumalai, Jewellery markets in the Bazaar street and South avani moola street. Printing and Hotels in West Perumal Maistry Street, All Major Hospitals in K.K.Nagar, Books and Note Books in New Mandapam. There are separate streets with retail shops for decorative articles, Bangles, Gift Articles, Gold and Ornaments, Chemicals and Pharmas etc. Madurai is the only city in India, with this kind of set up where hundreds of same shops being clustered in one street with competitors next door.

Movie Theatre:

·         BIG Cinemas 

·         Sri Murugan Cinema Hall

·         Palani Arumuga Cinema Hall

·         Mani Impala Cinema Hall      

·         Vellaikannu Cinema Hall       

·         Thangaswamy Cinema Hall

·         Thangarigal Cinema Hall

·         Thangam Cinema Hall

           

Geography :

Madurai city has an area of 52 km2, within an urban area now extending over as much as 130 km2  and it is located at 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N 78.12°E / 9.93; 78.12

Tourism:

 Madurai acts as a tourism hub of south Tamil Nadu because of its strategic location. There are various tourist visiting places around Madurai.

Is located about 25 km from the city, is a Vishnu shrine. The location is surrounded by hills. The principal temple is that of Kallazhagar. The Tamil new year festival called Chittirai Thiruvizha has been celebrated for centuries in this temple. In the entrance of the Azhagar Kovil one can view the Badhri Narayanan temple, built similar to Badrinath near Mount Kailash in northern India: the principal idol in this shrine represents Vishnu in a meditative posture, flanked by Nara-Narayan.

The Kallalagar is said to visit the temple on the eve of the Chittirai festival, one of the famous festivals in Tamil Nadu. He starts the journey from the Alagar Koil, crossing the Badri Narayanan Shrine. During this time, he visits Vandiyur, near the Vaigai River, on the eastern outskirts of Madurai. It is believed that he realizes he is too late for his sister's wedding, so refuses to cross the river, and returns disappointed to Alagar Koil. On the top of the hills, is a shrine of Murugan, popularly known as Pazhamudircholai. This is the last of Murugan's Arupadai Veedu and he is seen along with his consorts, Deivanai and Valli.

Around 120 km away from Madurai is Kodaikanal. It is one of the most beautiful hill stations in India. It is also known as princess of Hills. Kodai is located 2,130 m above the sea level in the Western Ghats.

About 70 km from Madurai on the way to Thekkady is Vaigai Dam. The dam offers a breathtaking sight on weekends when it is illuminated.

The holy city of Rameswaram lies about 164 kilometres from the temple city of Madurai.

Situated amidst rich flora and fauna, Suruli Falls serve as a perfect picnic spot. They lie on the way to Thekkady, at a distance of 123 km from Madurai.

 

History:

Madurai has a long recorded history. As early as the 3rd century BC, Megasthenes  visited Madurai. The city is referred to as "Methora" in his accounts. The city is also mentioned in Kautilya's ArthashastraMadurai has been described as the seat of the Pandyan Dynasty in Sangam literature (especially in Maturaikkāñci). The city is also described extensively in the Second century CE epic Silapathikaram. The city was home to the third and last Tamil Sangam (between 300 BCE and 200 CE). Madurai finds mention in the works of Roman  historians Pliny the Younger and Ptolemy and those of the Greek geographer Strabo. It is also mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Madurai in 1955

Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan, first ruler of the Sultanate of Madurai, 1335–1339 CE

 

After the Sangam age, most of present day Tamil Nadu (and along with it Madurai) came under Kalabhra rule. Kalabhras remained in control of Madurai till the middle of 6th Century CE. Around 550 CE, Pandyas regained control of Madurai and ruled it for the next four centuries. Madurai was conquered by the Cholas during early 9th Century and remained under their control till the early 13th Century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital. After the death of the last Pandyan ruler Kulasekara Pandian, Madurai came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The Madurai Sultanate, then seceded from Delhi and functioned as an independent kingdom till its destruction by the Vijayanagar Empire in 1378. Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 under the Nayaks. Nayak rule ended in 1736 and Madurai changed hands several times between Chanda Sahib, Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (Marudhanayagam) in the middle of the 18th Century. From 1764 to 1801 the city remained under the control of the Nawab of Arcot

In 1801 the British East India Company took direct control of Madurai and brought it under the Madras Presidency. In 1837, the city was expanded to accommodate the growing population by demolishing the fortifications around the temple. This was done on the orders of the then collector John Blackburn. The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct the new streets - Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri streets. The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866.[11] Madurai played a significant role in the Indian independence movement - it was at Madurai Gandhi made the decision to switch to wearing a loin cloth after seeing agricultural laborers wearing itThe independence movement in Madurai was led by leaders like N. M. R. Subbaraman Mohammad Ismail Sahib and Meer Niyamatullah Ibrahim Sahib.[citation needed] When India became independent in 1947 and Madras Presidency became Madras State (later Tamil Nadu), Madurai remained as its second largest city (till 2001). Post-independence, the city has expanded particularly to the north of river Vaigai by the development of new residential neighbourhoods like Anna Nagar and K. K. Nagar. In 1971 it was constituted as a Municipal Corporation. Currently Madurai remains the most important and populous city in Southern Tamil Nadu

K.M from Chennai : It is at Distance of  444km

Notes:.

Near By Places :

·         Alanganallur             

·         Sholavandan             

·         Tiruppuvanam             

·         Palamedu             

·         Kariapatti                   

·         Melur             

·         Usilampatti             

·         Nattam             

·         Kallupatti             

·         Nilakkottai                 

·         Virudunagar             

·         Sivaganga             

·         Peraiyur             

·         Elumalai             

·         Vattalkundu             

 

Festivals:

Lot of festivals are celebrated by Madurai People. Some of the important festival are, Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, The Chittirai Festival,Car Festival etc.